RR Donnelley pede falência e sai do país

Por Valor Econômico

A crise no mercado editorial brasileiro fez mais uma vítima de envergadura. Depois do pedido de recuperação judicial das redes de livrarias Cultura e Saraiva e da editora Abril, uma das maiores gráficas do mundo, a americana RR Donnelley (RRD), entrou com pedido de autofalência na Justiça brasileira e informou ontem a funcionários e clientes que está encerrando as operações no país.

A multinacional é responsável pela impressão do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (Enem) há cerca de dez anos e atendia praticamente todas as editoras de grande porte. Com unidades em Blumenau (SC), Barueri (SP) e Osasco (SP), onde fica a sede, a RR Donnelley emprega mais de 600 pessoas no Brasil – o número pode chegar a 800 se considerados os postos indiretos, embora a operação tenha encolhido recentemente.

Em carta a funcionários, clientes e fornecedores, à qual o Valor teve acesso, a RRD informou que a decisão foi tomada “com base em diversos fatores”, entre os quais a situação difícil de mercado da indústria gráfica e editorial “em toda parte, mas especialmente no Brasil”. Quando Saraiva e Cultura pediram recuperação judicial, houve efeito cascata em toda a cadeia do livro, incluindo as gráficas, que ainda não se recuperaram da crise econômica do início da década. A multinacional argumenta ainda que registrou recentemente “uma grande redução de volume nos pedidos de um cliente importante”. “A RRD buscou várias alternativas para evitar esse desfecho, mas uma análise meticulosa das finanças motivou nossa decisão.

A RDD está requerendo a autofalência porque não terá caixa suficiente para honrar sua folha de pagamento no próximo mês”, diz a correspondência. O plano da multinacional é vender ativos brasileiros no decorrer do processo de falência, “para garantir a preferência legal em relação aos passivos trabalhistas e tributários pendentes”. O pedido de autofalência será apreciado na comarca de Osasco.

Aos funcionários, a RR Donnelley diz que entrará em contato com os respectivos sindicatos com vistas à possível rescisão de todos os contratos de trabalho nos próximos dias, o que levaria à liberação dos valores depositados no Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço (FGTS) e à habilitação ao seguro-desemprego. Para o diretor editorial da Associação Brasileira da Indústria Gráfica (Abigraf), João Scortecci, a combinação de crise econômica prolongada e as dificuldades financeiras das grandes livrarias contribuíram para o fechamento das operações da RRD no Brasil.

Soma-se a isso as incertezas quanto às futuras compras governamentais, que respondem por dois terços do mercado brasileiro de livros didáticos. “Quanto ao Enem, não vejo muito problema, porque a licitação anual ocorre em abril e há quatro ou cinco outras gráficas com escala suficiente para rodar”, afirmou Scortecci.

“O que complica é a falta de clareza quanto à gestão no MEC [Ministério da Educação]”. O mercado gráfico editorial movimenta cerca de R$ 5,4 bilhões por ano no Brasil, considerando-se livros e revistas, e é o segundo maior para o setor gráfico, atrás apenas de embalagens. Desde a crise, segundo Scortecci, os preços dos livros não têm acompanhado o aumento dos custos de produção, o que já levou outras gráficas a fechar portas.

Para superar o momento complicado e os preços defasados, a Abigraf criou no fim do ano passado um grupo de trabalho, com entidades que representam o setor livreiro e as editoras, em busca de uma solução para reequilibrar os preços e, assim, remunerar todos os elos da cadeia. “Gráficas e editores precisam sair da zona de conforto e voltar a olhar para pequenas e médias livrarias”, acrescentou.

Procurada, a RRD informou, em nota com conteúdo muito parecido ao da carta aos funcionários, que operou no Brasil por mais de 25 anos, mas uma análise meticulosa das finanças motivou o pedido de autofalência. “Recentemente, a RR Donnelley perdeu um de seus principais clientes e registrou uma drástica redução no volume de trabalho contratado”, informou. No ano passado, segundo balanço disponível em seu site, a RRD teve venda líquida global de US$ 6,8 bilhões.

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