O silêncio das fábricas entristece as cidades

Por Valor Econômico

Tão fortes quanto os impactos da atual crise para a indústria são seus efeitos sobre os trabalhadores e as pequenas e médias cidades. Essa é uma face da recessão que coloca números, estatísticas, siglas e conceitos em segundo plano. O dia a dia da crise no mundo real é feito de fábricas fechadas, trabalhadores em casa, sistema de saúde pública lotado, comércio vazio, aumento da violência e prefeituras quebradas.

A recessão iniciada no terceiro trimestre de 2014 já pegou a indústria fragilizada. “Se a crise dos anos 80 significou a estagnação, a atual provocou retrocesso”, afirma David Kupfer, diretor do Instituto de Economia da UFRJ e pesquisador do Grupo de Indústria e Competitividade (GIC­IE/URFJ).

Às vésperas de completar três anos de queda trimestral seguida do PIB, o número de desempregados hoje é o dobro do que era em 2014. A participação da indústria no valor adicionado à economia é a menor da série histórica desde 1947 e chegou a 11,7% em 2016. Houve um esgarçamento natural do chamado tecido industrial ­ as relações na cadeia produtiva.

Esse cenário praticamente esgotou todos os mecanismos que compõem a rede de proteção social, que adiou para muitos a sensação de que a situação se agravava. “O seguro desemprego e os programas de redução de jornada de trabalho, por exemplo, já estão esgotados. Não há uma rede de proteção suficiente que sobreviva a uma recessão tão longa”, avalia Nelson Marconi, coordenador da Escola de Economia da FGV.

Então, o que acontece quando uma fábrica silencia? As consequências vão muito além das estatísticas de desempregados. Quando as máquinas são desligadas, também para o comércio, cai a circulação de mercadorias, a arrecadação de impostos diminui e o serviços públicos ficam sobrecarregados. A reportagem do Valor visitou cinco cidades de tamanhos diferentes em cinco Estados. E ouviu histórias que ajudam a definir essa resposta.

Encontrou pessoas como os Moraes, que além do sobrenome em comum vivenciam os efeitos da crise. Prestes a concluir o curso superior a distância de serviço social, Leonardo Moraes perdeu, em março, o emprego de ajudante de operações na fábrica de cimentos da Nassau, em Fronteiras (PI). Aos 27 anos, ele ainda espera em casa, no povoado de Pau Ferro, receber seus direitos. A quase três mil quilômetros dessa região castigada pela seca há seis anos, a empresária Romanilda de Moraes perdeu 40% da clientela que frequentava sua loja Moda & Cia, depois que a calçadista Via Uno fechou a fábrica em Novo Hamburgo (RS). O crescimento da violência na região obriga a empresária a trabalhar com a porta trancada o dia todo.

Para a professora de economia da Universidade Feevale em Novo Hamburgo, Lisiane Fonseca da Silva, o fechamento de postos de trabalho em todos os setores está ligado à deterioração dos indicadores de segurança pública. “Infelizmente dá para relacionar”, diz. Segundo a professora, quando a mão de obra de menor qualificação não consegue se recolocar no mercado legal, pode buscar outras “brechas”, desde pequenos furtos até o tráfico de drogas.

Os recentes sinais de um ensaio de retomada da economia servem, sem dúvida, de alento. Mas ainda não são fortes o suficiente para reverter a atual situação. “Temos uma capacidade ociosa muito grande. O empresário não vai voltar a investir enquanto a atual capacidade não for ocupada”, afirma Kupfer.

Da gigante Usiminas em Cubatão, passando pela Neobus em Três Rios até as pequenas moveleiras de Ubá, nada dá sinais de que as maquinas serão ligadas. As fábricas devem continuar caladas por algum tempo ainda. (Com Marina Falcão, de Fronteira, e Sergio Ruck Bueno, de Novo Hamburgo)

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