Nova Lei de Falências e Recuperação de Empresas – Análise crítica da suspensão das ações e execuções movidas contra o devedor em recuperação judicial

Por Migalhas

Texto de autoria de Daniel Carnio Costa

a) Suspensão da prescrição e das ações, execuções e de atos de constrição

O projeto altera o momento de suspensão da ações e execuções movidas contra o devedor em recuperação judicial, aproximando o modelo brasileiro do sistema do automatic stay do direito dos EUA. Nesse sentido, propõe que as ações e execuções movidas contra o devedor sejam suspensas já a partir da distribuição do pedido de recuperação judicial e não mais somente a partir do deferimento judicial do processamento do pedido.

No modelo atual da lei 11.101/05, quando o devedor ajuíza o pedido de recuperação, essa notícia se torna pública. Nesse sentido, os credores iniciam uma verdadeira corrida contra o patrimônio da devedora, na tentativa de realizar seu crédito ou parte dele antes que o juiz defira o processamento da recuperação judicial, quando então todos os credores ficariam obstados de prosseguir nas suas ações e execuções.

A eventual demora do juízo em deferir o processamento da recuperação pode representar a falência da devedora pela ação de seus credores, já que não existe qualquer proteção legal ao devedor durante esse período de tempo que medeia a distribuição da ação e a decisão de deferimento do processamento, quando a partir de então entraria em vigor o stay period.

Tal modificação vem em boa hora, considerando que o processo de recuperação judicial visa neutralizar os dois principais obstáculos que uma empresa em crise enfrenta para conseguir uma renegociação global com seus credores: a existência de credores resistentes (hold-outs), que por suas ações individuais contra a devedora inviabilizar a reorganização global e iniciam uma verdadeira corrida entre os credores contra o patrimônio da devedora. Assim, o procedimento da recuperação judicial deve, necessariamente, obstar os credores de avançar individualmente contra o patrimônio da devedora durante o período de negociação de um plano de recuperação. Além disso, a decisão da maioria dos credores deve vincular a todos, inclusive aos credores resistentes (que, se pudessem, iniciariam aquela corrida contra os ativos da devedora, deflagrando o mesmo comportamento dos demais credores).

E mais.

Antecipando a suspensão das ações e execuções para o momento da distribuição do pedido de recuperação judicial, o projeto oferece ao juiz do caso um tempo e uma tranquilidade maiores para analisar se o pedido ajuizado tem mesmo condições de ser processado, sem pressão da demora poder inviabilizar uma empresa em princípio viável. A perícia prévia, prática jurisprudencial que se tornou bastante difundida a partir de 2011 (e que visa analisar se a empresa tem ao menos em tese condições de gerar os benefícios econômicos e sociais que a lei busca preservar com a recuperação judicial – empregos, tributos, circulação de bens, produtos e serviços, geração de riquezas etc.) poderá ser feita sem a pressão (e a pressa) de se deferir o processamento para proteger a devedora contra os seus credores.

Trata-se, portanto, de providência que não favorece apenas a devedora, como se poderia pensar apressadamente. A antecipação dos efeitos da suspensão é providência benéfica também aos credores, na medida em que dará ao magistrado a possibilidade de verificar, com mais acuidade, se o pedido deve mesmo ser processado ou se seria o caso de indeferir a petição inicial, deixando aos credores – ao mercado – a decisão de prosseguir individualmente em suas execuções ou de requerer, pelas vias próprias, a decretação da falência, com instalação de um concurso de credores.

b) A amplitude da suspensão – quaisquer atos de constrição ou retenção judiciais e extrajudiciais – ações judiciais e arbitragens

O projeto deixa claro que a suspensão não se refere apenas ao andamento das ações e execuções individuais em curso contra a devedora que ajuíza o pedido de recuperação judicial. O efeito suspensivo decorrente do ajuizamento do pedido recuperacional também impede o credor de exercer qualquer forma de retenção, arresto, penhora ou constrição judicial ou extrajudicial contra o devedor, incluídas aquelas dos credores particulares do sócio solidário.

Nesse sentido, não poderá o credor exercer qualquer ato de que impeça a devedora de reaver seus ativos, como exercer o direito de retenção em ações possessórias. Nem mesmo atos extrajudiciais poderão ser exercidos pelos credores, como a aplicação da conhecida “trava bancaria”, situação em que o credor instituição financeira desconta valores depositados em uma conta sob sua gestão para o pagamento de dívida inadimplida pelo devedor, desde que tal crédito esteja incluído na recuperação judicial.

Não poderá o credor, a partir do ajuizamento da recuperação judicial requerer nem mesmo a penhora ou o arresto de ativos da devedora, nem qualquer outro tipo de ato de constrição judicial em ações cautelares ou executivas que já estejam em curso.

Também os credores particulares do sócio, que é devedor solidário juntamente com a empresa que requereu a recuperação judicial, ficará obstado de exercer qualquer ato de constrição judicial ou extrajudicial contra ativos da empresa devedora.

O esclarecimento trazido pela proposta de alteração legislativa visa, portanto, dissipar as divergências jurisprudenciais sobre o alcance da suspensão decorrente do automatic stay.

Não ficarão suspensas, todavia, ações que já estiverem em curso contra a devedora, nas quais o credor demande quantia ilíquida. Nesses casos, as ações deverão seguir normalmente, perante os juízos de origem, até que sejam definidas a existência e o valor do crédito, após o que deverá o credor solicitar a habilitação do seu crédito no processo de falência ou de recuperação judicial, a fim de recebe-lo conforme a ordem de prioridade legal ou como definir o plano de recuperação aprovado pelo conjunto de credores de sua mesma classe.

A novidade trazida pela proposta de reforma reside no esclarecimento de que as discussões arbitrais, nas quais se demandem quantias ilíquidas, seguem a mesma sorte das ações judiciais, ou seja, as arbitragens também devem prosseguir até definição da existência do crédito e de seu valor, após o que deverá o credor solicitar a habilitação do referido crédito no processo de falência ou recuperação judicial.

É importante destacar que, em nenhum caso, uma ação que já esteja em andamento contra a devedora – e que demanda quantia ilíquida – deve ser encaminhada ao juízo da falência ou da recuperação judicial. Os processos deverão prosseguir normalmente nos juízos de origem (Estatal ou Arbitral) e somente depois de definidas a existência e o valor do crédito, deverá o credor solicitar sua habilitação no processo concursal.

Relativamente ao crédito trabalhista, as ações já em curso deverão prosseguir normalmente até julgamento definitivo pelo juízo trabalhista. Mas a reforma propõe deixar bem claro que, mesmo depois da falência ou da recuperação judicial iniciada, as reclamações trabalhistas deverão ser ajuizadas normalmente perante a Justiça do Trabalho, que é a única competente para definir a existência e o valor do crédito trabalhista.

Entretanto, depois de definido o crédito e o seu valor pelo juízo especializado trabalhista, caberá ao juízo da recuperação ou da falência conferir se a atualização do crédito obedece aos critérios da Lei de Falências e Recuperação de Empresas, a fim de se garantia a par conditio creditorum.

Nesse sentido, a reforma propõe que o juízo trabalhista, depois do julgamento final da reclamação ajuizada pelo credor trabalhista, deverá expedir ofício ao juízo concursal com informação do valor do crédito atualizado até a data do pedido da recuperação judicial ou da decretação da falência.

Na prática, o juízo concursal deverá autuar o ofício trabalhista em incidente próprio e o administrador judicial deverá conferir o cálculo apresentado pelo juízo trabalhista, a fim de garantir que a atualização feita naquele juízo obedece ao critério do juízo concursal, ou seja, está limitada até a data da decretação da quebra ou do ajuizamento da recuperação judicial. Deve ser conferido, também, se o cálculo feito pelo juízo trabalhista incluir apenas as verbas trabalhistas ou também inclui outras verbas de outra natureza, como fiscais (custas) e honorários advocatícios (pertencentes ao advogado e não ao credor trabalhista). Feito isso, o crédito exclusivamente trabalhista deverá ser incluído no quadro geral de credores, na classe própria.

Em qualquer caso, tanto o juízo cível/arbitral, quanto o juízo trabalhista, poderá solicitar ao juízo concursal (falência/recuperação judicial) a reserva de valores que estimar devidos. Depois de reconhecida definitivamente a existência do crédito e o seu valor, deverá ser providenciada a sua normal habilitação para inclusão no quadro geral de credores.

É importante destacar que o pedido de reserva não é feito pelo credor, mas sim pelo juízo por onde tramita a ação trabalhista ou que demande quantia ilíquida. A reserva deve ser solicitada mediante ofício judicial.

Vale destacar, ainda, que a decretação da falência ou a recuperação judicial não prejudicam a possibilidade de adoção da via arbitral para solução de conflitos. Nesse sentido, havendo cláusula de arbitragem em algum contrato firmado pela empresa ora falida ou em recuperação judicial, a arbitragem será adotada como forma de solução do conflito, cabendo ao juiz da recuperação judicial qualificar o crédito para fins de inclusão no quadro geral de credores.

c) Suspensão do despejo

A proposta de reforma estabelece que a suspensão das ações impede também a realização do despejo da devedora em recuperação judicial.

A mudança vem em boa hora e se destina a esclarecer divergências jurisprudenciais nesse sentido. Há entendimentos jurisprudenciais no sentido de que a ação de despejo, por tratar de obrigação de dar coisa certa, não estaria incluída no âmbito da suspensão legal, que atingiria apenas a cobrança da dívida. Entretanto, é evidente que o despejo é uma forma de execução coercitiva diretamente relacionada à exigibilidade da dívida. Vale dizer, se a dívida de aluguel é exigível e não foi paga, está autorizado o despejo. Mas, se a dívida de aluguel teve sua exigibilidade suspensa, pois está incluída na recuperação judicial, não faz mesmo sentido que seja autorizado o correlato despejo.

Nesse sentido, a reforma deixa claro que não poderá ser realizado o despejo da devedora em razão de dívida de aluguel sujeita aos efeitos da recuperação judicial. Dizendo de outra forma, não cabe o despejo em razão do não pagamento de aluguéis vencidos até a data do pedido de recuperação.

Evidentemente, se o não pagamento do aluguel refere-se a período posterior ao ajuizamento da recuperação judicia, trata-se de dívida extraconcursal, sendo plenamente possível a execução da dívida e o correspondente despejo.

d) Suspensão de execuções trabalhistas contra responsável subsidiário

Segundo a proposta, as execuções trabalhistas movidas contra a devedora que pediu recuperação devem ser suspensas, uma vez que tal dívida está sujeita aos efeitos do processo concursal e deverá ser objeto da negociação global. Mas, além disso, não poderá o juízo trabalhista pretender prosseguir a execução trabalhista contra eventual responsável subsidiário, por desconsideração da personalidade jurídica.

Tornou-se prática no juízo trabalhista a tentativa de driblar a proteção legal oferecida pela recuperação judicial à empresa devedora. Os juízos trabalhistas passaram a desconsiderar a personalidade jurídica da empresa para atingir os bens particulares dos sócios ou de outras empresas coligadas ou integrantes do mesmo grupo econômico.

Assim agindo, alguns credores – sujeitos ao concurso – acabavam recebendo integralmente seu crédito, colocando em risco a possibilidade dos demais credores trabalhistas de receberem ao menos parte dos seus créditos.

E mais.

Essa atitude colocava em risco a negociação global para reestruturação da empresa, prejudicando a geração dos postos de trabalho, em prejuízo ao interesse dos demais credores trabalhistas dependentes das atividades da empresa.

Portanto, visando garantir os benefícios sociais e econômicos da recuperação judicial, a proposta estabelece que o crédito trabalhista terá sua exigibilidade suspensa (contra o devedor principal e contra o devedor subsidiário) até que a negociação coletiva seja definida no processo de recuperação judicial, ou seja, até a homologação do plano ou a convolação da recuperação judicial em falência.

e) Prazo de suspensão – até o encerramento do processo de recuperação judicial

A reforma propõe uma mudança bastante relevante no que tange à duração do stay period. No sistema atual, o prazo de suspensão das ações e execuções movidas contra a devedora em recuperação judicial não poderia durar mais do que 180 dias contados da data do deferimento do processamento do pedido. Esse prazo foi idealizado para ser improrrogável. Entretanto, a jurisprudência dos Tribunais definiu que caso os credores não tivessem votado o plano de recuperação judicial dentro do prazo de 180 dias, as ações e execuções deveriam continuar suspensas, desde que esse atraso não pudesse ser atribuído à conduta da própria devedora.

Na prática, o prazo de 180 dias se tornou prorrogável na grande maioria dos casos, na medida em que a realidade mostrou que, seja pela complexidade dos processos recuperacionais, seja pela burocracia e pela falta de estrutura judiciaria, raramente foi possível realizar uma AGC com votação do plano de recuperação em menos de 180 dias.

Nesse sentido, a proposta de reforma propõe que o prazo de suspensão das ações e execuções tenha validade até o final do processo de recuperação (que ocorrerá com a homologação do plano aprovado pelos credores).

A proposta de mudança traz maior segurança ao processo recuperacional, na medida em que a instabilidade relativa à proteção legal (prorrogação ou não do stay period) colocava em risco o sucesso da reestruturação da empresa. Isso porque, o levantamento da suspensão das ações antes da renegociação das dívidas, liberaria os credores para avançar individualmente contra os ativos da devedora, iniciando aquela corrida dos credores que, certamente, levaria a devedora à falência.

Conforme já dito, a suspensão das ações e execuções individuais é um dos fundamentos da recuperação judicial, sem a qual resta totalmente inviabilizada a possibilidade de negociação global e reestruturação da empresa, com prejuízo à manutenção dos benefícios econômicos e sociais buscados pela recuperação judicial.

f) Créditos fiscais, FGTS, penalidades administrativas impostas aos empregadores pelos órgãos de fiscalização das relações de trabalho e contribuições sociais e seus acréscimos legais

Propõe o projeto de reforma da lei, que não somente as execuções fiscais (créditos tributários) fiquem imunes aos efeitos da recuperação judicial, mas também as execuções de outros créditos equiparados, como FGTS, multas administrativas trabalhistas e contribuições sociais.

Compreende-se a tentativa do legislador de oferecer uma maior proteção aos créditos tributários e equiparados, na medida em que um dos objetivos da recuperação judicial da empresa é preservar o recolhimento de tributos e garantir os interesses sociais na proteção aos trabalhadores.

Entretanto, a proteção desses interesses relevantes deve ser compatibilizada com os demais valores objetivados pela recuperação judicial da empresa consistentes na preservação da atividade como fonte produtora de empregos, produtos, serviços e circulação de riquezas em geral.

Nesse sentido, a proteção ao crédito tributário ou equiparado não poderá se dar de forma absoluta, em prejuízo da própria reorganização da empresa.

Daí a necessidade de que exista uma legislação adequada que permita a empresa em crise, normalmente detentora de um elevado grau de endividamento fiscal, repactuar de maneira razoável e factível esse passivo extraconcursal com as autoridades fiscais.

Do contrário, caberá ao Poder Judiciário realizar uma interpretação adequada desses dispositivos, aplicando o que propõe a teoria da superação do dualismo pendular, fazendo com que a melhor interpretação/aplicação da lei seja aquele que preserva não apenas o interesse do fisco (como credor), mas sim o interesse social/público de preservação dos benefícios econômicos e sociais que decorrem da manutenção de uma atividade empresarial viável.

O projeto propõe, ainda, que o juízo da recuperação não terá competência para decidir sobre a constrição e expropriação de bens nas execuções fiscais (e equivalentes) que prosseguirem durante o curso da recuperação judicial.

Tal disposição está em confronto com a própria lógica do processo recuperacional e com o entendimento consolidado do STJ que já afirmou que o juízo coletivo é quem tem condições de compatibilizar a realização do interesse do credor extraconcursal com os demais interesses sociais e coletivos envolvidos no processo de recuperação da empresa.

Note-se que o entendimento do STJ não se formou em razão de qualquer dispositivo legal expresso da Lei 11.101/05, mas sim em função da lógica recuperacional e do juízo de ponderação de valores, próprios da interpretação jurisdicional.

Aplicando-se nesse aspecto a teoria da divisão equilibrada de ônus, não se poderá admitir a interpretação que afirme que o Poder Público não ofereça a sua dose de sacrifício para a preservação dos benefícios sociais decorrentes da recuperação da empresa que exerce a sua função social.

Não se pode confundir interesse público primário com interesse público secundário. O interesse do fisco que é merecedor de proteção na recuperação judicial é aquele que se identifica com o interesse público primário (interesse público por excelência de realização do bem comum) e não o interesse público secundário (interesse egoístico do órgão público como credor, pensando nos seus próprios cofres).

Nesse sentido, essa norma proposta pela reforma não deve prevalecer, preservando-se a competência do juízo da recuperação para decidir sobre a possibilidade/compatibilidade da expropriação de um ativo envolvido em execução extraconcursal, de modo a preservar a prevalência do interesse social sobre o interesse particular de um credor específico (ainda que seja o fisco, agindo no seu interesse público secundário).

E caso aprovada, essa norma certamente será neutralizada pela interpretação jurisprudencial compatível com a lógica do sistema recuperacional e com a ponderação de valores envolvidos no processo de recuperação da empresa em crise.

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