BC cobra adesão a modelo que flexibiliza ‘trava bancária’

Por Valor Econômico

O debate gerado pela oferta da Rede, válida apenas para quem tiver conta no Itaú Unibanco, vem num momento em que o Banco Central (BC) tenta assegurar maior flexibilidade aos lojistas no uso dos recebíveis de suas vendas com cartões. O regulador tem acompanhado de perto a adequação de bancos e credenciadoras a uma regra que entrou em vigor no dia 8 deste mês.

De acordo com ela, os estabelecimentos poderão transferir seus recebíveis de uma instituição financeira para outra, desde que os ativos não sejam garantia de operação de crédito no banco em que foram depositados. O objetivo do BC é que haja maior competição na oferta de empréstimos. Há alguns sinais de que isso já começa a acontecer.

O Valor apurou que bancos de menor porte estão se movimentando para fazer operações de crédito lastreadas pelos pagamentos com recebíveis de cartões – um segmento em que praticamente não atuavam até agora porque mais de 90% desse fluxo ia para os grandes bancos por meio de suas credenciadoras. Segundo fontes do setor, o BC tem ligado para os participantes do mercado para cobrar a adesão à nova regra e acena com a aplicação de sanções às empresas que não estão prontas.

A resolução 4.707, que trata do assunto, foi publicada no fim do ano passado e o prazo de vigência chegou a ser adiado uma vez, do fim de janeiro para abril. Para cumprir a regra, boa parte do mercado se organizou em torno de duas câmaras para fazer a “leitura” do fluxo de recebíveis dos clientes – procedimento necessário para os participantes do mercado saberem que os ativos existem e se estão disponíveis. Os grandes bancos e suas credenciadoras, como Cielo e Rede, ficaram na Câmara Interbancária de Pagamentos (CIP), onde já estavam. Instituições financeiras de menor porte e novas credenciadoras se plugaram à Central de Recebíveis (Cerc), empresa que surgiu com o objetivo de fazer o registro de ativos financeiros. Uma terceira via, a criação de contratos bilaterais, chegou a ser discutida, mas não prosperou. Segundo duas fontes, as conversas esbarraram no pedido de abertura de informações sobre clientes das credenciadoras. Até agora, no entanto, uma parcela dos adquirentes ainda não aderiu a nenhum desses caminhos ou não ficou pronta.

A Stone, que pretendia fazer acordos bilaterais, tende a se conectar à Cerc nos próximos dias. A preparação não é simples e exige a adaptação de sistemas de bancos e credenciadoras. A resolução previa também que, já nesse estágio, o mercado começasse a praticar a chamada trava bancária parcial. As instituições financeiras só poderiam reter o fluxo equivalente ao saldo devedor da operação.

O restante poderia ser usado de forma livre pelos estabelecimentos. Mas isso não aconteceu, de acordo com executivos do setor, principalmente por questões técnicas. Então, neste primeiro momento, o que está valendo é um sistema tudo ou nada. O banco libera todo o fluxo ou retém a totalidade desses recursos, caso sejam garantia de empréstimos.

No entanto, essa regra é transitória. O BC prepara uma norma definitiva, que vai trazer duas exigências principais. Uma é que os recebíveis sejam registrados em uma câmara que ateste sua existência e, assim, possam ser livremente usados pelos lojistas. Outra é que os bancos só possam reter, como garantia, a parcela desses ativos equivalente ao saldo devedor da operação de crédito lastreada por eles.

O regulador sinalizou que vai publicar até julho essa nova regra. A expectativa no mercado, porém, é que a resolução fique pronta ainda em maio, acelerando sua implementação. A minuta que o BC submeteu a consulta pública, no ano passado, previa que a regra definitiva passasse a valer 480 dias depois de aprovada. A CIP apresentou sugestão que, na prática, alonga esse prazo. Outros participantes do mercado, por sua vez, defenderam uma adoção muito mais rápida. Não está claro ainda se o regulador vai mexer no prazo. Procurado, o BC informou que não comenta assuntos específicos de entidades reguladas.

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