A cláusula resolutiva e a recuperação judicial

Por Valor Econômico

Apesar do Brasil ter registrado uma queda de 25,9% do número de recuperações judiciais nos primeiros seis meses deste ano em relação ao mesmo período de 2016, conforme dados do Indicador Serasa Experian de Falências e Recuperações, o interesse das empresas pela recuperação judicial aumentou significativamente nos últimos anos, principalmente em razão da crise econômica brasileira.

Diante deste cenário de crise, a inclusão de cláusula resolutiva que estabelece a rescisão de contrato por descumprimento de obrigação quando uma das partes requer o pedido de recuperação judicial, tem se tornado cada vez mais comum, visto que o pedido de recuperação judicial induz a incapacidade da empresa insolvente em cumprir com suas obrigações contratuais.

No entanto, a validade (ou não) de tal cláusula resolutiva tem sido amplamente discutida no Poder Judiciário. A este respeito, há posicionamentos, tanto doutrinários como jurisprudenciais, que afastam a validade da cláusula resolutiva expressa nos contratos em caso de recuperação judicial com base nos princípios norteadores da Lei nº 11.101/05 (Lei de Falências e de Recuperação de Empresas).

A cláusula resolutiva tem como propósito proteger os interesses das próprias partes, não sendo razoável negar a sua validade.

Por outro lado, há entendimentos contrários no sentido de considerar a cláusula resolutiva como válida com fundamento nos princípios contratuais da autonomia da vontade e pacta sunt servanda (princípio da força obrigatória dos contratos).

Segundo a posição contrária à validade da cláusula resolutiva, a Lei 11.101/05 estabelece, em seu artigo 47, que o objetivo da recuperação judicial é viabilizar a superação da crise econômico-financeira da empresa em recuperação, promovendo a sua preservação, sua função social e o estímulo da sua atividade econômica. Por tal razão, a resolução contratual no caso de recuperação judicial seria contrária ao objetivo da lei, vez que inviabilizaria a continuidade da atividade empresarial da empresa recuperanda, contribuindo ainda mais para a sua insolvência.

Dos entendimentos judiciais mais recentes sobre este tema, destaca-se a concessão de liminar no caso da recuperação judicial da Oi S.A., na qual foi deferida a suspensão da eficácia da cláusula resolutiva, autorizando a empresa recuperanda, inclusive, a participar em processos licitatórios de quaisquer espécies.

Em outro caso, uma empresa que prestava serviços exclusivamente para a Petrobras, também teve reconhecido pelo Tribunal de Justiça do Rio de Janeiro a inaplicabilidade da cláusula resolutiva prevista em contrato pois, sua rescisão, colocaria a empresa recuperanda “em posição de extrema desvantagem, rompendo com a presunção de igualdade contratual”.

Diversos tribunais têm corroborado com este entendimento com fulcro nos princípios da preservação da empresa e de sua função social. Além disto, doutrinadores também sustentam que a referida cláusula não pode se sobrepor à Lei 11.101/05, e, por isso, deve ser considerada inválida.

Vale destacar, também, que resolvido o contrato com base em cláusula resolutiva expressa, a empresa recuperanda poderá ter que arcar com alguma penalidade contratual gerando, ainda, mais prejuízo.

Sob outra perspectiva, doutrinadores e tribunais têm se posicionado contrariamente, isto é, defendem a validade da cláusula resolutiva expressa por insolvência. Para eles, as normas de direito empresarial devem ser aplicadas de forma supletiva em relação à vontade das partes contratantes, prevalecendo os princípios contratuais da autonomia da vontade e da força obrigatória dos contratos, sendo defendido, ainda, (i) que a Lei 11.101/05 não veda expressamente as partes contratantes de se precaverem de situações de inadimplemento contratual de empresas em situação de insolvência, e (ii) que o Código Civil estabelece, em seu artigo 474, que a cláusula resolutiva expressa opera de pleno direito independentemente de pronunciamento judicial.

Ademais, a cláusula resolutiva no caso de recuperação judicial tem como propósito proteger os interesses das próprias partes, não sendo razoável negar a sua validade, pois, além de contrariar a liberdade das partes em contratar, a parte solvente ficaria ainda mais vulnerável aos interesses da parte insolvente e poderia ter a sua situação ainda mais agravada, com prejuízos decorrentes de inadimplemento ou inexecução do contrato em face de situação financeira da empresa recuperanda.

Superada a discussão acima, deve se atentar à redação da cláusula resolutiva, pois caso a mesma não seja clara, poderá haver questionamento se a resolução de um determinado contrato ocorrerá quando do simples requerimento da recuperação judicial ou quando do seu deferimento.

Por fim, nota-se que há uma grande divergência doutrinária e jurisprudencial sobre a validade (ou não) da cláusula resolutiva expressa em recuperação judicial, havendo, portanto, correntes bastante consistentes, porém contrárias sobre o mesmo assunto, devendo, ainda, cada caso concreto ser analisado de forma independente.

Guilherme Penteado Cardoso, Daniel Ber Cukier e Pedro Castex Aly de Santana são advogados especialistas em contratos do escritório Porto Lauand Advogados

Este artigo reflete as opiniões do autor, e não do jornal Valor Econômico. O jornal não se responsabiliza e nem pode ser responsabilizado pelas informações acima ou por prejuízos de qualquer natureza em decorrência do uso dessas informações

 

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